When the holiday season approaches, many people remember that they should go on a diet. It’s easy to find one that suits us. Thanks to them, we feel better. Thanks to them, we lose weight. And for most of us, all without exception are associated with sacrifices. Wrongly, because diet is nothing but a way of eating. Each of us has a diet and in many cases it’s not about any changes. It’s just the name of the way we power our body. A salad can be part of a diet. The groundlet may be part of the diet. A caramel bar can be part of the diet. The latter may not be the healthiest choice, but it will not change what the diet is.
The diet may be healthy or not. The Institute of Food and Nutrition has prepared a few good tips, thanks to which each of us can start eating healthier and better. Undoubtedly, this will have a positive effect on our health and on our weight, but this will happen in a moment. What people usually associate negatively is specialized diets that have some specific functions. There are weight loss diets (which are to help us lose excess weight), healing diets (which help us relieve particular ailments), and elimination diets (which remove specific ingredients from the diet).
How to eat healthy
We will start with the basics, that is, the good advice of the Institute of Food and Nutrition. In 2016, the nutrition pyramid was updated, which shows us what products should be consumed by us. The principle of the pyramid is such that (from the bottom) the lower the product is, the more we should eat it.
Let’s start with the water (outside of the pyramid). We should drink a minimum of 1.5 liters of water a day. Pure water, not flavored. This drink should replace all juices and sodas.
At the very bottom of the pyramid there are extremely important vegetables and fruits (a rich source of vitamins and minerals). You should also keep the right balance between them – 3/4 for vegetables and 1/4 for fruits.
Next we have carbohydrates (bread, cereal and pasta). Remember that the less processed product the better. Wholemeal bread and whole grain pasta are great sources of fiber, vitamins and minerals. They also give a feeling of fullness, so we don’t snack between meals.
As far as dairy products are concerned, the Institute of Food and Nutrition recommends the consumption of curd, milk, yogurt and kefir (natural, non-flavored). it’s a rich source of vitamin B, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and potassium. It does not recommend eating large amounts of yellow cheese. It contains salt and saturated fats, which are not good for us in large quantities.
Next we have protein products (red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes). They provide protein, iron and vitamin B among other things. Marine fish additionally are a rich source of extremely beneficial omega-3 fatty acids. Remember, however, that these products should be an addition to vegetables, and not the other way around. We should not eat meat more than 3-4 times a week and we should carefully buy cured meat in stores. Large quantities of sodium and phosphorus are often used in its production. We should also remember that fish contain small amounts of mercury, so they should be eaten twice a week. If we eat a predatory fish then we should limit ourselves to one fish a week.
At the very top there are fats. Here, too, we must remember to reach for healthy fats. These are found in vegetable oils, olive oil, fish, nuts and seeds. Bad fats, harmful to our health, are found in lard, cream, butter and many sweet / salty snacks available in stores.
An additional recommendation, apart from proper nutrition, is physical activity. For a healthy life, you should have 30-40 minutes of movement per day. We’re talking of running, swimming, cycling, walking, climbing stairs, etc. Don’t kid yourself, we have more and more sitting jobs. Any activity will be appreciated.
Weight loss diet
And now we are going through what for many is essentially associated with sacrifices. The purpose of this diet is to lose excess weight. Usually this is achieved through an energy deficit. To lose a kilogram of fat in a week, we should consume 7,000 kcal less. So, every day we should eat 1000 kcal less.
Weight loss diets are best suited for low-energy diets (also found in therapeutic diets). The energy value in this case is between 1200 kcal and 1600 kcal (never below 1000!). The menu should be built in such a way that fats constitute 25% of the energy value, 20% protein, and carbohydrates up to 55%. The most important element here are vegetables (750 g / day) because they provide essential vitamins. Wholemeal bread and whole wheat pasta make us feel satisfied. In addition, they are a great source of fiber, which will definitely help with weight reduction. Dishes should be cooked in a small amount of water, or steamed. Frying should be avoided, dishes should be cooked without fat, or baked in foil.
Healing diets are divided into basic, high-resourced, low-energy diet (discussed above, so we will not repeat ourselves), easily digestible, easily digestible with limited fat, controlled fatty acid content, easily digestible with limited gastric acid stimulating substances, easily digestible with variable consistency (mushy, liquid, liquid strengthened), easily digestible protein-rich, easy to digest low-protein, with the limitation of easily digestible carbohydrates.
The basic diet is the basis of nutrition for people staying in hospitals and similar facilities. It has to provide all nutritional values, not change body weight and keep in good health. The protein accounts for approx. 16% of energy needs, 30% fats, and the rest is supplemented with carbohydrates.
High residual diet is a modification of the basic diet to help with intestinal disorders. It increases the amount of fiber taken (40-50 g / day) and the amount of water consumed. And the energy division looks as follows: protein 14.5%, fat 29.5%, carbohydrates 56%.
The easily digestible diet is used for diseases of the digestive and digestive system, as well as for the elderly and patients after heavy surgery. The body has to get all the nutrients from it, and at the same time not work too hard when digesting food. Protein 15.5%, fats 29.5%, carbohydrates 55%.
The easily digestible diet with fat restriction is for patients with liver or pancreatic disease, and with too high cholesterol levels. Protein 12-18%, fat 20%, the rest are carbohydrates.
The diet with a controlled content of fatty acids is aimed at converting animal fats into vegetable fats. It’s used, for example, at atherosclerosis. Protein 15.5%, fats 27%, carbohydrates 57.5%.
We use the easily digestible diet with restriction of gastric acid stimulants at gastro-oesophageal reflux. The main goal is to reduce the secretion of gastric acid. it’s not allowed to use any carbonated beverages, strong teas, spicy dishes, fried and smoked dishes, coffee, and alcohol. Protein 16%, fat 31.5%, carbohydrate 52.5%.
The variable-consistency diet is mainly used for diseases of the mouth and esophagus. Proteins 16%, fats 30%, carbohydrates 54%.
A high-protein diet is to provide enough protein to rebuild damaged body and tissue. Protein a minimum of 20%, fats 28%, carbohydrates 52%.
Low-protein diet is required for kidney disease and general organ failure. In addition to providing the body with the necessary nutritional values, it also has to protect the liver. Proteins 8%, fats 30%, carbohydrates 62%.
A diet with the limitation of easily digestible carbohydrates is used for diabetes and is supposed to reduce blood glucose. Proteins 15-20%, fats 30-35%, carbohydrates 45-50%.
For people suffering from allergies are condemned to these diets, there is also an elimination diet: milk-free, non-lactic, gluten-free, lactose-free, without … .. (enter any product that can cause allergies. So, unfortunately, enter any product). There are people who can’t take digest some products. It’s harmful to them, it causes discomfort. They should try these diets. However, it’s becoming increasingly popular to use the elimination diet as a form of following fashion. This is especially true for the gluten-free and lactose-free diets. The problem is that the elimination diets are not healthy! They are necessary for allergy sufferers, but they can be harmful to healthy people. By eliminating a product from the diet, we get rid of all the nutritional properties that it has. Sometimes it can be replaced with something else, but usually it means the need for additional supplementation, which many people don’t think about. Getting rid of gluten will not make you healthier if you don’t suffer from gluten intolerance! Let’s not follow the fashion blindly.