Synephrine is one of the most often used substances for the production of weight loss supplements. Synephrine gently stimulates, like caffeine, decreases appetite and supports burning calories. It is not a “miraculous agent” which burns fat that we have aggregated for years, as such supplements don’t exists. However, it may help people, who despite physical activity and a healthy diet cannot get rid of unwanted kilograms.
- The activity of synephrine
Synephrine is a natural substitute of ephedrine. It is more and more often added to drugs and supplements addressed to sportsmen and obese people. Producers boast of the fact that they offer an ephedrine-like preparation, free from real ephedrine, which is considered an illegal doping agent, harmful in long-lasting weight loss therapies. Synephrine is an isomer of phenylephrine. Ephedrine stimulates metabolism, decreases appetite and at the same time it intensifies mental and physical activity, restores willingness to work and move, which is beneficial both for sportsmen and obese people. Moreover, it increases mental and physical efficiency.
Synephrine is structurally similar to ephedrine. It is produced as natural synephrine obtained from unripe citrus fruits, e.g. Citrus uranium L., Citrus aurantium L. and as synthetic synephrine or half-synthetic in the form of free synephrine (Synephrine;1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino)ethanol; 4-hydroxy-alpha-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcohol; oxedrine; C9H13NO2), Synephrine tartrate 2(C9H13NO2).C4H6O6; 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino)-ethanol tartrate; bis[(+/-)-[2-hydroxy-2-(4- hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]methylammonium]-[r-(r*,r*)]-tartrate) and Synephrine hydrochloride; C9H13NO2.HCl; 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino)-ethanol hydrochloride). Unripe citrus fruits contain on average ca. 0.26% synpehrine.
Synephrine stimulates the sympathetic system, therefore it has a sympathomimetic effect, similarly to adrenaline and tyramine or ephedrine. Ephedrine mainly influences alpha-1, beta-1, beta-2 and beta-3 receptors. Synephrine influences alpha-1 receptors. It also influences beta-3 receptors, thanks to which it causes lipolysis (fat breakdown) with the simultaneous start of thermogenesis. Synephrine increases blood pressure, accelerates blood circulation. It increases minute volume of the heart. It widens bronchial tubes, stops asthma attack, similarly to ephedrine. It facilitates respiration, clears sinuses, improves well-being. It has positive effect on allergic patients.
- The source and dosing of synephrine.
Synephrine for supplements is obtained from bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Bitter orange extract contains also, apart from synephrine, tyramine and octopamine. Daily use of synephrine should be included in 2-10 mg. It corresponds to ca. 200-600 mg of the extract from bitter orange, as synephrine constitutes only a few percent of the composition of this extract. Do not exceed the recommended daily dose of synephrine. Although the use of synephrine doesn’t entail such side-effects like in case of ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine, applying excessively high amounts of this substance is not recommended.