We live in an age in which we have an increasing number of diseases. We live in a hurry, we do not have time to rest, we eat badly, we lack activity, and we work a lot. It all makes us sick more often, more and more seriously. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes, which we will write about in this article, is a problem that occurs worldwide and with an increasing incidence.
In 2000, almost 177 million people suffered from diabetes, and rising statistics show that in 2030 this value will amount to nearly 366 million. Why diabetes, what causes it, how to recognize it, how to treat it? We will discuss this below.
Type II diabetes is a metabolic disease of hyperglycaemic nature. It occurs when there is an impairment of insulin secretion or action. Why does diabetes start to develop in the body? In the case of type II, the pancreatic β is damaged, which is responsible for its production. If diabetes is not treated, or more precisely if the patient does not take the right medication and does not use the diet, damage and dysfunction of many activities or organ failure may occur. Most often the eyes, kidneys, urinary system, heart, as well as blood vessels are at risk of complications.
Norm for a healthy person on an empty stomach is 100 mg / dl. If the value is above 126 mg / dL, the person is being tested for potential diabetes. An improperly treated disease can lead to hypoglycaemia, where the sugar concentration drops sharply below 60 mg / dL or to hyperglycaemia, where the value increases above 180 mg / dL.
Diabetes – how to recognize it? In fact, when it comes to diabetes, recurrent symptoms may indicate that we are struggling with this disease. Too low level causes sudden hunger, agitation as well as irritability. There is a headache, convulsions, as well as muscular tremors and even loss of consciousness. If the level is too high, skin dryness, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness and, consequently, ketone coma occur. When your sugar gets too high, go to the hospital immediately.
Diabetes – where to get tested? Just go to the nearest laboratory and do a blood test on an empty stomach for diabetes. At elevated blood sugar, it’s necessary to repeat the test. If this condition persists, further diagnostics should be carried out and undergo appropriate medical care.
Why is diabetes dangerous? Its effects are very dangerous for health and even for the lives of people suffering from this disease. The main chronic complications are:
- eye damage – retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, loss of vision
- kidney damage – nephropathy
- dysfunction of the cardiovascular system
- myocardial infarction
- ischemic heart disease
Diabetes – who may get this disease? Certainly, a much greater group of risks are people who lead an unhealthy lifestyle. Inappropriate diet, inadequate amount of nutrients, and lack of regularity of meals; all this can lead to a greater likelihood of type II diabetes development. An important role is also played by the correct body mass. If we eat a lot of simple sugars, carbonated drinks, sweets, fast foods or other such products, we also risk developing this disease. It’s worth to bet on a large amount of fibre, including whole-grain bread, raw fruits and vegetables, healthy fats, the right amount of protein, as well as healthy and well-prepared food.
Diabetes – how to treat it?
If we are diagnosed with diabetes, we must realise that it’s necessary to significantly change our lifestyle, because it’s what this diseases progress and effects will depend on. It’s a progressive disease. At the beginning there is a disorder of insulin production or secretion, a person is ill. At the beginning insulin is produced by the pancreas, but this process does not proceed properly because it’s produced with a delay. Then, the level of glucose in the blood is still normal. Diabetes causing obesity leads to insulin resistance. The pancreas produces more and more insulin to keep up the blood glucose level until it can’t produce as many pancreatic ß cells as they become depleted. At that time, blood glucose levels increase and type II diabetes is diagnosed.
Regarding treatment, the basis is, as mentioned above, a change in lifestyle, but also appropriate pharmacology, including cardiovascular diseases. Some patients will need oral medications, while others will need to be given subcutaneous treatment. If the tablets do not help, insulin is required.
Diabetes is a very dangerous disease and you have to realise that it changes the person’s life by 180 degrees. You can live with it, but it involves many limitations. Although it’s an inherited disease, it’s worth to lead a healthy lifestyle, because it reduces the risk of falling ill, and if it occurs, follow the diet, be active and apply appropriate treatment, and then you can live and enjoy life with type II diabetes.